Cultural Diplomacy As A Form Of International Communication


10 Cultural Diplomacy as a Form of International Communication By Marta Ryniejska KieÅdanowicz www​.insti​tute​forpr​.org The concepts of public and cultural diplomacy are intertwined with the concept of branding or to put it simply brand managemen It may be assumed that the basic principles in building the brand of acountry are the same as in the commercial sphere of identity buildin Both are based on the task of creating aproposition or undertakin usually based on emotion-​based values, that may be transformed into symbols that are clear and flexible and that should be effective to impact in many situations and many target groups. There is no doubt that countries today compete with one another on the global market and just as is the case with products, one of the aims before them is to maintain their competitive advantage over other countries. The brand of acountry is linked with its economy, exports, tourism and direct investments. All of these contribute to the promotion of acountry. Looking at this process from the other perspective it may be said that acountry that has agood brand promotes tourism, inflow of direct investments and expor S. Anhold feels that countries send messages through ahexagon of communication channels and through their behavior. See the diagram below. Diagram 1– The 6 Communication Channels Hexagon In analyzing the above illustration the conclusion that can be reached is that countries spend millions on communicating their messages every day. As W. Olins writes countries communicate messages about their existence via political, cultural, popular, actions as well as products, services, spor behaviors, architecture and art 38 . Questions connected with culture constitute asignifican but also acontroversial part in the promotion of countries. The governments of many countries do not perceive its value and often place emphasis on other communication channels. As S. Anholt notes, treating the promotion of culture as amust means that one can not 166. Tourism Export brand Domestic and foreign policy Investments and immigration People Culture and heritage 9 Cultural Diplomacy as a Form of International Communication By Marta Ryniejska KieÅdanowicz www.instituteforpr.org supporting creativity and promotion of Polands culture abroad 31 . Also the document entitled, Polands foreign cultural policy and its aims between 2001 ? 2003, prepared by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Culture and the National Heritage presented asimilar approach. The direct aim of the states cultural policy is the presentation of Polish culture and our scientific achievements with afurther, indirect aim, of projecting amore objective image of Poland to an ever wider group of recipients abroad, which is particularly more relevant in view of (Polands) efforts to join the European Union 32 . As J.K. Ujazdowski 33 noted cultural diplomacy is the third element of foreign policy. According to him it constitutes the implementation of the countrys foreign policy with the aid of the countrys cultural and intellectual achievements. It thus follows that it should also cover the promotion of Polands political and economic achievements. He feels that cultural contacts pave the way for other forms of cooperation. Also, often where strict political cooperation is impossible or difficult cultural contacts are the basic tool in shaping international relations 34 . E. Labno-Falecka concurs with his view noting that Polands cultural Policy is an integral part of foreign policy 35 . Ociepka, in writing about classical diplomacy stresses the processes, which influence alternative forms international relations. These are the propagation of education, promotion of wrien texts, cross-border flow of information and accessibility of culture. The author feels that cultural diplomacy conducted by the government is significant in two ways. Firstly, it covers bilateral and international agreements and can thus be treated as negotiations. Furthermore these undertakings are conducted by diplomats in order to verify these agreements and further the image of the country they represent 36 . Among the Council of Ministers documents from 2000 there is adefinition of cultural diplomacy. It is worded thus, cultural diplomacy is asignificant element of the countrys foreign policy, the promotion of Polands culture, education and art and asignificant element in shaping our countrys positive image abroad 37 . Taking into account the different approaches Iwill define cultural diplomacy as the promotion of acountry through widely understood culture? ideas, history, ar asystem of values and tradition. Its aim is to foster mutual understanding between nations. Often, within the context of deliberations on the notion of cultural diplomacy the concept of historical diplomacy appears. This can be understood as undertakings which are aimed at shaping opinion about acountry on the basis of information about its history or to promote the country with the aid of the history itself. 32 Zagraniczna polityka kulturalna Polski ijej priorytety na lata 2001 ? 2003. Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych, Ministerstwo Kultury i Dziedzictwa Narodowego. Warszawa, 33 Kazimierz MichaÅ? Ujazdowski was Ministry of Culture and National Heritage twice in the year 1999) , Komunikowanie miļdzynarodowe, WrocÅaw: Astrum, p. 63. 37 Informacja oreformie polskiej dyplomacji kulturalnej (2000) , dokument przygotowany przez Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych. 17 Cultural Diplomacy as a Form of International Communication By Marta Ryniejska KieÅdanowicz www.instituteforpr.org The Adam Mickiewicz Institute wo institutions linked: The National Centre of Culture and The Adam Mickiewicz Institute) (including international Project and its statutowy activities — ok. 000 Trips of employees and delegates, visits of foreign guests, mandatory agreements, subscription payments to international organizations 000 Deduction of the cost of the National Centre of Culture 2005 r. The figures show that asubstantial part of the total budget for the promotion of Poland are allocated to promoting culture. These are not very impressive amounts bearing in mind that Western European countries allocate sums which afew times bier. Unfortunately there is aproblem that has been discussed for along time. This problem concerns the coordination of public diplomacy and the shortage of funds allocated for its needs. Successive foreign ministers have stressed the importance of promoting Poland in their expose. Among others Radek Sikorski talked in May 2008 about the importance of undertakings designed to disseminate information about Polands history and culture, particularly the contemporary one, but also stressing the fact that this is amodern country. However, astrategy of promotion has not been planned although the undertakings of MKi DN appear to be well thought out? in particular their cyclical nature, we still lack awider time-frame and arather low level of cohesion in the promotional undertakings. The undertakings of cultural diplomacy would stand amuch greater chance of succeeding if they were large, coordinated projects such as Polish seasons. These make it possible to maintain apresence for amuch longer period of time thus drawing aention to Poland and maintaining the interest of the recipients. Moreover, when compared to such countries as Spain, Germany, The United Kingdom, France or Italy the infrastructure for the promotion of our culture abroad is much poorer. It would seem that the Adam Mickiewicz Institute should play asupporting role for Polands cultural diplomacy efforts like the Swedish Institute in Stockholm or the Korea Foundation in Seoul. Of course there are other model institutions like the Goethe Institute, British Council or Alliance Francaise but they are mainly focused on teaching languages and in the case of Spain on promoting culture, using funds raised through teaching the language. In Polands case language teaching plays a